Global and local climate change also threatens the future of South Africa and the BCC's marine ecosystem resources. Regional climate change related trends already observed include an increase in sea surface temperature across the Benguela system, sea level rise in most parts of the system and a decrease in the winds that drive upwelling off Namibia in recent years, but a longer-term increase in those winds off the South African south coast. In particular the current very low biomasses of sardine, a key target species in both Namibia and South Africa, have forced the industries in those two countries to explore and begin to implement quite drastic adaptation options. Climate-related changes in wind, upwelling, sea surface temperature, productivity, oxygen levels, storm frequency, precipitation, freshwater flow and runoff patterns, may all have impacts on estuaries, inshore and offshore ecosystems. These changes are likely to affect resource and habitat diversity, resource abundance, fish behaviour and physiology, resource catchability, fish size and fishing opportunities and success, which in turn will affect commercial and subsistence fishing livelihoods and recreational fisheries and their associated industries.